Kaitiakitanga encompasses a Māori world view of guardianship, protection and sustainability. The concept of kaitiakitanga supports developing rich opportunities for learning for all ākonga (students). It provides a basis for ākonga to actively engage as part of their wider community and to apply their learning in an authentic context.

“Young people: They care. They know that this is the world that they're going to grow up in, that they're going to spend the rest of their lives in. But, I think it's more idealistic than that. They actually believe that humanity, human species, has no right to destroy and despoil regardless.”

― David Attenborough


Our context example

There is a small awa (stream) that runs through the back of our school. Our kaumātua (person with traditional knowledge) tells us it used to be abundant with tuna (eel) and ika (freshwater fish). In our role as kaitiaki (guardian) of our local area, we are wondering:

How might we improve the health of our awa in order to encourage eel and freshwater fish to come back?

“Kei te ora te wai, kei te ora te whenua, kei te ora te tangata.”

If the water is healthy, the land and the people are nourished.

Chosen level

  • Curriculum Level 1: Year 0 up to year 4

Technology Strands

Students learn to know WHY

Technology Achievement Objectives

At this level teachers will be leading the learning of students to:

Characteristics of technology

• Understand that technology is purposeful intervention through design.

Identify that people designing and making things to solve problems, creates the ‘made world’. Understand that people follow a process to do this.

Characteristics of technological outcomes

• Understand that technological outcomes are products or systems developed by people and have a physical nature and a functional nature.

Distinguish between people-made outcomes and natural outcomes. Identify who uses outcomes, understand an outcome’s nature by its look (physical) and how it works (functional).

Teaching and Learning

Students come to understand technology as an intervening force in the world and learn that technological developments are inevitably influenced by (and influence) historical, social, and cultural events.

There are two components in this strand: characteristics of technology and characteristics of technological outcomes

  • Possible Learning Activities:

    • Discussions about what people have designed in and around the awa and how these have impacted (both positive and negative) on it. Outside expert could be brought in to lead discussion (local iwi/hapū, Department of Conservation, local council environmental department).

    • Explore the nature of some technological outcomes (eg. plastic water bottles). Discuss their physical nature, how they look—their design, shape and why they were designed this way. Examine the properties of what they are made from (clear, flexible plastic materials) and how they have impacted the people who use them and the environment they have been found in.

    • Take samples of water (a bucket full). Compare the awa sample with a tap water sample ie clarity, wildlife, rubbish.

    • Discussion about what could be done to improve the awa for the wildlife in and around it.

    • Research and discuss the history of the area to find out if there are any interesting aspects of past use or stories

Students learn to know WHAT

Technology Achievement Objectives

At this level teachers will be leading the learning of students to:

Technological modelling

• Understand that functional models are used to represent reality and test design concepts and that prototypes are used to test technological outcomes.

Modelling/models test your thinking of what could be real (eg. playdough/card test the look, shape, size) and prototypes test if they work (eg. Lego with moving parts)

Technological products

• Understand that technological products are made from materials that have performance properties.

Identify what things are made from, how they react to their environment in different ways, and how they can be manipulated

Technological systems

• Understand that technological systems have inputs, controlled transformations, and outputs.

Technological systems

• Understand that technological systems have inputs, controlled transformations, and outputs.

Teaching and Learning

Students come to understand key concepts that underpin all technological development and the resulting technological outcomes.

There are two components in this strand:technological modelling, technological products, and technological systems

  • Possible Learning Activities:

    • Guide students to explore the environment directly around the awa to determine potential reasons for a reduction in fish population. (Science)

    • Count wildlife as it moves over a white board placed in the stream, or explore wildlife found in a bucket of water from the stream. Teacher leads use of a tally chart to record findings. (Mathematics and statistics)

    • Use digital video capture to measure the numbers of fish at regular intervals. (DDDO)

    • Discuss how everyday systems around us have inputs and outputs. eg. 1. how a door works (parts, and human energy on door handle are inputs, the temporary hole in the wall opens/closes are outputs).

    • Discuss how a tablet has physical parts - case, screen, buttons, electronics inside, speakers, and a battery are inputs. The electrical inputs work together to process information the human provides, which is then shown on the screen, and/or sound are outputs.

    • Students use their data to create a simple wall display, using technological modelling and products, of their findings from the research. Modelling the wall display from materials such as paper and card supports students to understand how they perform eg. card/paper gets soggy in water, plastic doesn’t. Confirmation of hunch/inquiry is supported or challenged.(Mathematics and statistics)

Students learn to know HOW

Technology Achievement Objectives

At this level teachers will be leading the learning of students to:

Planning for practice

• Outline a general plan to support the development of an outcome, identifying appropriate steps and resources.

Identify what to do next. Identify what resources are needed (materials, components/software)

Brief development

• Describe the outcome they are developing and identify the attributes it should have, taking account of the need or opportunity and the resources available.

Communicate what will be created. Say what the key features/attributes are (size, job/what it does, how it is safe etc.)

Outcome development and evaluation

• Investigate a context to communicate potential outcomes. Evaluate these against attributes; select and develop an outcome in keeping with the identified attributes.

Create representations (of their ideas) through models, drawings, verbally. Communicate how these ideas include the required attributes, then select and produce the outcome.

Teaching and Learning

Students are given opportunities to engage in their own technological practice and to reflect on the practice of others.

There are three components in this strand: Planning for practice, Brief development, and Outcome development and evaluation

  • Possible Learning Activities:

    • Invite kaumātua, people who have lived in the area for a long time, local iwi/hapū, local council environmental department, Department of Conservation, or community members, to share about the history and use of the awa by the iwi/hapū, kōrero the importance of the awa to the community, past and present. (Social Science, Place based learning)

    • Identify the pathway of the river. Guide students to look for potential causes of pollution at the source, down stream, and identify any pollution coming from their school. (Science)

    • Teacher leads students to consider what makes a sustainable and healthy awa (Science) and then evaluate the awa against their chosen attributes. (Technology)

Technological Learning Areas

Computational thinking for digital technologies

Progress Outcomes

At this level teachers will be leading the learning of students to.

In authentic contexts and taking account of end-users, students use their decomposition skills to break down simple non-computerised tasks into precise, unambiguous, step-by-step instructions (algorithmic thinking). They give these instructions, identify any errors in them as they are followed, and correct them (simple debugging).

Step-by-step instructions (algorithms) need to give the same outcome every time they are followed. Instructions need to be able to be followed by anyone without any input from others ie precise and unambiguous. When errors (bugs), are corrected in the instructions it is called ‘debugging’.

Teaching and Learning

Computational thinking

Students express problems and formulate solutions in ways that means a computer (an information processing agent) can be used to solve them.

In this area, students develop algorithmic thinking skills and an understanding of the computer science principles that underpin all digital technologies. They become aware of what is and isn’t possible with computing, allowing them to make judgments and informed decisions as citizens of the digital world.

  • Possible Learning Activities:

    • Rescue Mission Activity - Create a map on a grid of the awa. Teacher leads students to write instructions for tuna (eels) to navigate the awa from the creek to the Tongan trench (simple algorithm).

    • Count wildlife as it moves over a white board placed in the stream, or explore wildlife found in a bucket of water from the stream. Teacher leads use of a tally chart to record findings. (Mathematics and statistics)

    • Explore as an algorithm the traditional process for ensuring the sustainable harvest tuna (eels). ie karakia, set hīnaki, pull up hīnaki, remove eels of the wrong size, enjoy!

    • Sorting Network Activity - lifecycle of fish or the history of the area, what the impact has been.

    • Create a set of instructions (algorithm) for people to follow (the behaviours that will protect the awa).

    • Decomposition Activity (the crime could be who polluted the river).

    • Debugging Activity (being eels navigating the river).

Progress Outcome Designing and Developing Digital Outcomes

Progress Outcomes

At this level teachers will be leading the learning of students to.

In authentic contexts and taking account of end-users, students participate in teacher-led activities to develop, manipulate, store, retrieve, and share digital content in order to meet technological challenges. In doing so, they identify digital devices and their purposes and understand that humans make them. They know how to use some applications, they can identify the inputs and outputs of a system, and they understand that digital devices store content, which can be retrieved later.

A digital outcome needs to be designed to meet a real need, for real people. Do students understand what each digital device does, and how it will help them meet their desired outcome? Where and how do they store/use the files they create? Do they understand the difference between what people feed in to a system, versus what comes out? Students can use different applications to complete a task and understand that choosing the right application can make the task easier.

Teaching and Learning

Designing and developing digital outcomes

Students understand that digital applications and systems are created for humans by humans. They develop increasingly sophisticated understandings and skills for designing and producing quality, fit-for-purpose, digital outcomes. They develop their understanding of the technologies people need in order to locate, analyse, evaluate and present digital information efficiently, effectively and ethically.

  • Possible Learning Activities:

    • Image photography, capturing the story. Kōrero about digital photos as files which are copied and stored. Discussion about how digital photos, videos and text are different types of information and they are all digital outcomes. Discussion about digital outcomes (such as photos) having been created by people, and should be treated appropriately e.g attributions, permission.

    • Have a discussion about why choosing sensible names for files is important (so they can easily be found).

    • Stop motion animation or Youtube drama teaching other students about the human threats to the awa and how to avoid them.

    • Develop a functional model of their animation or movie by drawing, storyboarding, creating models or verbally.

    • Teacher leads an activity to use simple analogue/digital testing equipment to capture simple data, temperature and being able to graph it for use in a digital format such as a slideshow or portfolio.

    • Combine place based learning and social mapping to create a 3D story on ‘how to look’ after the awa resource using a digital map app.

    • Teacher leads students through a simple design process to produce a video or presentation using the data collected to show the existing state of the waterway to an agreed audience (other class/year level, whānau, community group).

Essential resources in Kia Takatū ā-Matihiko Pīkau

  1. Pīkau 05: CTDT: PO1 First steps in programming (decomposition, algorithmic thinking, debugging).

  2. Pīkau 06: CTDT: PO2: Programming with sequence and output (decomposition, algorithmic thinking, debugging).

  3. Pīkau 11: DDDO PO1: Digital outcomes - getting started progress outcome 1 (Authentic context, Sharing, Identifying devices and their purpose).

  4. Pīkau 12: DDDO PO1: Challenge yourself with PO1: (Authentic context, storing, retrieving, Sharing, Identifying devices and their purpose) Applications.

  5. Pīkau 13: DDDO/PO 2 & 3 Digital Photography & Images (Copyright, Attribution, Digital photography).

  6. Personal perspectives of teachers integrating Digital Technologies into the classroom.(1 hour 7 mins)

Additional support resources

  1. Science/ Social Sciences
  1. Mathematics & Statistics
  1. Literacy: Reading resources
  • Under the Sea (Gold) Information report on seaweed with audio included.
  1. Higher reading level, but could be used as a discussion starter with class.
  • The plastic free challenge: A School Journal article (reading level 2) about a school protecting the ocean from plastic. Models kaitiakitanga and provides an example of students having an impact through taking action.

  • Tiakina a Tangaroa: A School Journal article (reading level 2) that shows students acting on questions and issues in regards to their local beach

  • Talking to the river: A School Journal article about monitoring pollution in a river.

  • Mahinga Kai Crusaders: A School Journal article about looking after the places where kai is gathered.

  • The River - A School Journal article about a rover polluted upstream by a factory and a student acting on this.

  1. The Arts
  1. Technology